"This web page was produced as an assignment for Genetics 564, an undergraduate capstone course at UW-Madison."
Post Translational Modifications
What are PTMs?
Post translational modifications occur in proteins and are sites where changes such as an addition of a phosphate group, acetyl group, or a methyl group can occur. There are many types of protein modifications, but we are going to focus on a protein phosphorylation event. Phosphorylation can occur on serine, threonine, or tyrosine. In general a phosphorylation "activates" the protein, but phosphorylation at different sites within the same protein can have different outcomes (1).
Figure 1. Predicted phosphorylation sites of LPHN3 using NetPhos 3.1 in humans.
Figure 2. Predicted phosphorylation sites of LPHN3 using NetPhos 3.1 in zebrafish.
Looking at the predicted phosphorylation sites from NetPhos 3.1, it is no surprise at the amount of possible phosphorylation events. LPHN3 is a relatively long protein and the domains are highly conserved. But there appears to be a bit more differences in phosphorylation between zebrafish and humans than expected. With a 70% amino acid identity their post translational modifications appear to have diverged some. Yet keep in mind this is only a prediction tool and their actual phosphorylation patterns could be nearly identical.
References: 1. Nikolaj Blom, Steen Gammeltoft, Søren Brunak, Sequence and structure-based prediction of eukaryotic protein phosphorylation sites1 , Journal of Molecular Biology, Volume 294, Issue 5, 17 December 1999, Pages 1351-1362, ISSN 0022-2836, https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1999.3310. Images human: http://thehigherlearning.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/2050-human.jpg zebrafish: http://www.socmucimm.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Danio-rerio.jpg
*protein phosphorylation events predicted with NetPhos 3.1*